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Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point wireless links.
CCTV is often used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks, casinos, airports, military installations and convenience stores. The increasing use of CCTV in public places has caused a debate over public surveillance versus privacy. People can also buy consumer CCTV Systems for personal, private or commercial use.
A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing Digital Video Recorders (DVRs), provides recording for possibly many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features (such as motion-detection and email alerts).
In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room; when, for example, the environment is not comfortable for humans. CCTV systems may operate continuously or only as required to monitor a particular event.
1.Standalone DVR systems
2. PC based DVR systems
A digital video recorder (DVR) or personal video recorder (PVR) is a device that records video in a digital format to a disk drive or other memory medium within a device. The term includes stand-alone set-top boxes, portable media players (PMP) and software for personal computers which enables video capture and playback to and from disk. Some consumer electronic manufacturers have started to offer televisions with DVR hardware and software built in to the television itself; LG was first to launch one in 2007. It has also become the main way for CCTV companies to record their surveillance, as it provides far longer recording times than the previously used VCRs
3. IP based CCTV Systems / Remote Surveillance systems
IP video surveillance can be defined as the transmission of video utilizing open internet protocols and standards for the purpose of recording and monitoring. This should not be confused with more proprietary methodologies of transmitting video in which only the manufacturer of the camera can decode the video for the purpose of recording and/or display.
The first IP camera was released in 1996 by Axis Communications, and it utilized an embedded Linux platform internal to the camera. Axis also released documentation for their low-level API called “VAPIX” which builds on the open standards of HTTP and RTSP. This open architecture encouraged third-party software manufacturers to develop management and recording software resulting in exponential growth of the IP video surveillance market.
As with still digital cameras, resolution are increasing all the time. multi-mega pixel IP-CCTV cameras are now available at resolutions of 1, 2, 3, 5 and even 11 mega pixels. This said, affordable lenses that can deliver sharp enough images for cameras of 5Mpix and above are not yet available
Some of the advantages of IP-based video surveillance include
- Reduced system cost and added functionality due to general-purpose IP networking equipment infrastructure.
- Choice of open-platform video recording hardware and software.
- Ability to select specific frame rates and resolution for each camera in a system.
- Greatly reduced system cost due to low-cost cabling in large installations (CAT5e instead of RG-59 coaxial cable).
- Ability to use Power over Ethernet allowing for one cable to handle power and data.
- Flexible and seamless support for a variety of standard and multi-mega pixel image resolutions way beyond NTSC, PAL and SECAM.
- Transmission of commands for PTZ (pan, tilt, zoom) cameras via the same cable.
- On-camera automated alerting via email or file transfer in response to video motion detection or dry-contact alarms.
- Support for different streaming media and compression formats to relieve transmission bandwidth and data storage requirements.
- Support for new embedded intelligent video motion detection with shape recognition/counting applied to objects, people, and vehicles.
- Integration of video surveillance with other systems and functions such as access control, alarm systems, building management, traffic management, etc.
- Future-proof installations with field-upgradeable products due to the ability to upgrade camera firmware over the network.
Today there are many vendors of IP cameras and many vendors for digital video recorders and network video recorder (NVR) software. IP surveillance equipment vendors typically include both specialized digital imaging equipment manufacturers and larger manufacturers that are active in consumer, broadcast, and security video.
Access control is the ability to permit or deny the use of a particular resource by a particular entity. Access control mechanisms can be used in managing physical resources (such as a movie theater, to which only ticket holders should be admitted), logical resources (a bank account, with a limited number of people authorized to make a withdrawal), or digital resources (for example, a private text document on a computer, which only certain users should be able to read).
When a credential is presented to a reader, the reader sends the credential’s information, usually a number, to a control panel, a highly reliable processor. The control panel compares the credential’s number to an access control list, grants or denies the presented request, and sends a transaction log to a database. When access is denied based on the access control list, the door remains locked. If there is a match between the credential and the access control list, the control panel operates a relay that in turn unlocks the door. The control panel also ignores a door open signal to prevent an alarm. Often the reader provides feedback, such as a flashing red LED for an access denied and a flashing green LED for an access granted.
1. Time and Attendance & Access Control 9. Time and Attendance (TA) System
Automated Time and Attendance (TA) System is an efficient way for a company to record, evaluate and manage attendance activity of their employees.
Comparing to manual time-sheet or time-punch-clock, automatic system has some advantages:
- more accurate and faster time tracking/recording, data processing and report generation
- reduce human error
- reduce man-hour cost of HR department
- more accessibility employee-activity data
- flexible reports can be generated fast and easy
- ready data for other system such as payroll software
- open possibility to realize advanced features such as online employee tracking, managing remote/distributed workers, etc
The key differences between manual and automatic system are in how to enter attendance data, and who to process and generate reports. Manual TA- system use time sheet or time punch clock for data recording. The calculation and report generation should do by human. In other hand, automated TA-system use electronic reader to read and store attendance data, and use the power of computer and software to do the calculation and generating reports.
Attendance data entry Time sheet or time punch clock Via reader of TA-machine
Calculation & reports By human By computer & software
In automated TA system, employee enter their identity (ID), time and attendance machine read the ID and store to it’s memory along with other information such as date, time, pressed button, swipe direction, etc. Host computer then read this attendance data using downloader function of Time Attendance Software then store it to transaction database. This attendance transaction data will be used to generate various reports. The data can also be used by external system, such as payroll and accounting software.
Note: In this article, the terms ‘automated time and attendance system’ , ‘time and attendance system’, ‘time-attendance system’ and ‘TA-system’ have same meaning.
Automatic time and attendance sub-systems
The following picture show basic components of time-attendance system.
Automated Time and Attendance System Block Diagram
Employee ID typically stored in magnetic stripe, barcode, microchip or RFID transponder. The most common medium now is PVC card. Other way is to use human biometric uniqueness as employee ID. For example: finger print, finger vein, finger and palm geometry, eye iris, voice, body gesture, etc.
Time and attendance machine
Time and attendance machine components:
Microcontroller, as the brain of the machine
Reader module to read employee ID. For example: barcode reader, magnetic card reader, RFID reader, smartcard reader, finger print reader, finger vein reader, handkey reader, voice recognition device, etc.
Memory device to store attendance transaction before move to host computer.
User interface, for example: LCD, LEDs, keypad, buzzer, etc.
Communication interface to provide the communication link between time attendance machine and host computer. For example: RS-232, RS-485, RS-422, Ethernet, WiFi, etc.
Time and attendance software.
This program read attendance data from machine and store into database. The database will be used for generating useful reports and also for input-data of other applications such as payroll and accounting systems.
2. Biometric System:
It based on the fingerprints using the world’s most advanced products of leather (the inner layer of skin) and its own fingerprint acquisition of advanced fingerprint comparison algorithm. Products most prominent feature is not ideal for all types of fingerprints with a high recognition rate, for example, dry fingers, light texture fingers, wear fingers, rough fingers, older fingers, finger grease, dust fingers, Daini fingers, finger ink; good and to prevent artificial fingerprints. These two characteristics make up for the market’s most fingerprint products in the widespread problem.
3. BOOM BARRIER:
Automatic Boom Barriers offer efficient security at the exit and the entry points of Factories, Office Complexes, Condominiums, Parking Lots, Toll Tax Plazas or any road – way entry where medium to heavy traffic is expected.
Designed for heavy-duty operation with sleek and modern looks. An inbuilt anti – crush safety device suspends the motion of the barrier, should it meet any obstruction.
Optional beam sensor provides further protection to vehicles.
Dual speed of the barrier optimizes time and maximizes safety. This unique feature ensures quick opening and closing of the barrier with soft landing. Duration of fast and slow speeds is programmed at the time of installation according to the length of the boom and the frequency of traffic expected.
Entire system is powered by 24 Volts DC to avoid electrocution and to integrate barrier with other peripheral safety devices such as access control system, optical beam sensor, etc. for greater flexibility and added safety.
The barrier is activated either by a single touch push button or remote control. However its electronic control panel is designed to accept signals from various controls and safety accessories such as Beam sensor (optional), Magnetic card reader (optional), computer, etc.
4. Door Interlocks:
A door panel position control mechanism for a multiple panel horizontal sliding door assembly of a freight elevator landing. The mechanism comprises a multiple node scissors linkage that is configured to be easily installed and initially adjusted and which has its parts symmetrically balanced about a vertical plane such that excessive eccentric loading on the components is reduced and a long service life is obtained with reduced wear and a reduced need for periodic adjustment.
Hazardous machines and systems are frequently equipped with safety elements (safety doors) with a locking mechanism to protect the operator. Their function is:
a) to prevent hazardous machine functions if the safety door is not closed and locked,
b) to keep the safety door closed and locked until the risk of injury has passed.
5. A perimeter fencing:
A perimeter fence is a structure that circles the perimeter of an area to prevent access. These fences are frequently made out of single vertical metal bars connected at the top and bottom with a horizontal bar. They often have spikes on the top to prevent climbing. Residential perimeter fences are normally made of wood about six inches thick, or a solid wall. Some fences may be string-like pieces of metal stretching across horizontally and vertically, creating a mesh of metal.
6. Visitor Management:
Security is a matter of paramount concern for every organization. We helps in automating various physical operations of a Security Department though its modules like Visitor, Material, Keypunch Management etc.
Visitor Management is an important aspect of any organization. Need for visitor management vary depending upon the number of visitors, visitor flow density etc. Hence we offered in different versions to cater to these different needs. It is a proven solution & is almost a de facto standard amongst security professionals.
7. IP Based:
It worked on principle of Network Access Control (NAC) aims to do exactly what the name implies: control access to a network with policies, including pre-admission endpoint security policy checks and post-admission controls over where users and devices can go on a network and what they can do.
“NAC’s roots trace back to the trusted computing movement. In this context an open-architecture was created as an alternative to proprietary NAC initiatives. TNC-WG aims at enabling network operators to provide endpoint integrity at every network connection, thus enabling interoperability among multi-vendor network endpoints
Initially 802.1x was also thought of as NAC. Some still considers 802.1x as the most simple form of NAC, but most people think of NAC as something more.
a bar that spans an emergency exit door on its interior and opens the latch when pressure is applied.
Pay and Park System
Entry and exit units
Atomic Absorption Spectrometers
Gas Analysis & Chromatography
Electronic Security & Automation Products
CCTV Surviellance Systems
Door Operators & Motors
Entrance Control Systems
Home Automation System
Parking Security Systems
Mining Safety Products
Air & Vibration Monitoring
Rescue and Refuge Chambers
Burglar alarms (or perimeter detection systems, Perimeter protection, intrusion detection systems and many more terms for the same thing) are divided to two main fields: home burglar alarms and industrial burglar and perimeter intrusion detection
Industrial perimeter intrusion detection systems
In the field of industrial security systems, the methodology of protection is quite different. First is to detect, second to delay and third to alarm. Industrial alarm systems are designed as an integration of several sensor systems. The most important for big facilities would be the outer fence on which a sensor is placed. It would detect and delay the intruders before they even reach the building itself. As described below, there are a number of different fence mounted sensors, each with its own pros and cons. Other than the fence mounted sensors, there are also buried perimeter sensors that can be put on top of a wall or buried underground to create a hidden defense line. This only allows the security system to detect an intruder, but does not delay them. Another choice for detecting is Closed Circuit Television (CCTV). A guard can watch the screens or video motion detection software act the part. In any case CCTV is ineffective as a standalone sensor because it’s affected by weather conditions as cameras cannot see in heavy fog, rain and snow. The last line of protection is the building itself. It can be protected by infrared sensors, microwave sensors, smart locks and magnetic door sensors.
An Intrusion Prevention System is a network security device that monitors network and/or system activities for malicious or unwanted behavior and can react, in real-time, to block or prevent those activities. Network-based IPS, for example, will operate in-line to monitor all network traffic for malicious code or attacks . When an attack is detected, it can drop the offending packets while still allowing all other traffic to pass. Intrusion prevention technology is considered by some to be an extension of intrusion detection (IDS) technology. The term “Intrusion Prevention System” was coined by Andrew Plato who was a technical writer and consultant for *NetworkICE.
Intrusion prevention systems (IPS) evolved in the late 1990s to resolve ambiguities in passive network monitoring by placing detection systems in-line. Early IPS were IDS that were able to implement prevention commands to firewalls and access control changes to routers. This technique fell short operationally for it created a race condition between the IDS and the exploit as it passed through the control mechanism. Inline IPS can be seen as an improvement upon firewall technologies (snort inline is integrated into one), IPS can make access control decisions based on application content, rather than IP address or ports as traditional firewalls had done. However, in order to improve performance and accuracy of classification mapping, most IPS use destination port in their signature format. As IPS systems were originally a literal extension of intrusion detection systems, they continue to be related.
Intrusion prevention systems may also serve secondarily at the host level to deny potentially malicious activity. There are advantages and disadvantages to host-based IPS compared with network-based IPS. In many cases, the technologies are thought to be complementary.
An Intrusion Prevention system must also be a very good Intrusion Detection system to enable a low rate of false positives. Some IPS systems can also prevent yet to be discovered attacks, such as those caused by a Buffer overflow.
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